Pressure Equipment Directive

The Directive: PED 2014/68/EU

in Pressure Equipment Directive

The new Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) 2014/68/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the market of pressure equipment replaces the former Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC as from 19th July 2016.

The Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) applies to the design, manufacture and conformity assessment of pressure equipment and assemblies with a maximum allowable pressure (PS) greater than 0.5 bar.

The purpose of the PED is to ensure common standards of safety in all pressure equipment sold within the European Economic Area. Manufacturers are therefore able to meet the requirements for approval in any member state of the EU, and do not have to repeat the process when selling goods in any other state.

  • Chapter I: General Provisions (Art. 1-5)
  • Chapter II: Obligations of Economic Operators (Art. 6-11)
  • Chapter III: Conformity and classification of PED and assemblies (Art.12- 19)
  • Chapter V: Notification of Conformity Assessment bodies (Art.20- 43)
  • Chapter VI: Committee Procedure and delegated acts (Art.44- 46)
  • Chapter VII: Transitional and Final Provisions (Art.47- 52)
  • Annex I: Essential Safety Requirements
  • Annex II: Conformity Assessment Tables
  • Annex III: Conformity Assessment Procedures
  • Annex IV: EU Declaration of Conformity

Scope

in Pressure Equipment Directive

The Directive applies to the design, manufacture and conformity assessment of pressure equipment and assemblies with a maximum allowable pressure greater than 0.5 bar.

Vessels, piping, safety accessories and pressure accessories are all included.

Typical examples of pressure equipment covered include:

  • shell and water tube boilers
  • heat exchangers
  • pressure vessels
  • process pipework
  • electric heaters
  • valves – isolation
  • valves – control
  • meters
  • relief valves
  • safety valves
  • bursting discs
  • buckling rods
  • controlled safety pressure relief systems
  • pressure switches
  • temperature switches
  • fluid level switches

 

The Directive (art.13) classifies a few categories for pressure equipment, based on:

  • hazard level, which is determined based on stored energy (pressure-volume product)
  • nature of the contained fluid.

 

The Directive does not apply to:

  • assembly of pressure equipment on site and under the responsibility of the user, as in the case of industrial installations;
  • equipment for military use, for use in transport;
  • equipment which presents a relatively low hazard from pressurization and which is within the scope of another CE mark directive (e.g. the Machinery Directive, Atex Directive, Low Voltage Directive, Medical Lift)
  • vessels used for the transport of fluids while under pressure (i.e. containers used for the transport of fluids by road, rail, sea and air). These are subject to another directive, the Transportable Pressure Equipment Directive (TPED);
  • simple pressure vessels, which are the subject of a separate directive;
  • aerosol dispenser;
  • several classes of equipment as set out in the article 1.2 of the PED 2014/68;

Compliance

in Pressure Equipment Directive

Assessment and conformity procedure are different for each category, in which the equipment is classified (Art.14):

PED category Conformity assessment route (Annex III):

•   Module A: Internal production control

•   Module A2: Internal production control plus supervised checks at random interval

•   Module B: EU-Type examination certificate

•   Module C2: Conformity to type based one internal production control plus supervised pressure equipment checks at random intervals

•   Module D: Conformity to type based on quality assurance of production process

•   Module D1: Quality assurance of the production process

•   Module E: Conformity to type based on pressure equipment quality assurance

•   Module E1: Quality assurance of final pressure equipment inspection and testing

•   Module F: Conformity to type based on pressure equipment verification

•   Module G: Conformity based on unit verification

•   Module H: Conformity based on full quality assurance

Category I Module A
Category II •   Module A2

•   Module D1

•   Module E1

Category III •   Module B+D

•   Module B+F

•   Module B+E

•   Module B+C2

•   Module H

Category IV •   Module B+D

•   Module B+F

•   Module G

•   Module H1

 

Essential Safety Requirements

The Annex I of the Directive defines certain safety requirements about the design and performance of pressure equipment, such as:

– equipment must be designed for adequate strength taking into account internal/external pressure, ambient and operational temperatures, static pressure and mass of contents in operating and test conditions, traffic, wind, earthquake loading, corrosion and erosion, fatigue, decomposition of unstable fluids;

  • it must be ensured safe handling and operation of examination;
  • adequate means shall be provided for the draining and venting of equipment;

– equipment must be provided with protection against exceeding the allowable limits of pressure;

– where necessary, pressure equipment must be designed and fitted with suitable accessories to meet damage-limitation requirements in the event of external fire;

Specific requirements are defined for materials used for the manufacturer of pressure equipment.

Harmonized Standard

Pressure equipment or assemblies, which are in conformity with harmonized standards or parts thereof,  which have been published in the Official Journal of the European Union, shall be presumed to be in conformity with the essential safety requirements covered by those standards or parts thereof, referred to in Annex I.

The materials used for the manufacture of pressure equipment or assemblies which are in conformity with European approvals for materials, the references of which have been published in the Official Journal of the European Union, shall be presumed to be in conformity with the applicable essential safety requirements set out in Annex I.

There is a special category of pressure equipment and assemblies – below or equal to the limits set out in all the other categories – which must be designed and manufactured in accordance with the Sound Engineering Practice (SEP) of a Member State to ensure safe use.

The Essential Safety Requirements of the Directive do not apply to product falls in the SEP category but can be a good guidance in absence of other instructions. A derogation it is also made for the CE marking of SEP, since Article 4 paragraph 3 explicitly prohibits CE marking of SEP pressure equipment.

Technical Documentation

The manufacturer shall draw up the technical documentation referred to in Annex III of the Directive.

Non-Compliance

The non-compliance with the Directive’s requirements will result in the removal of the equipment from the market and the revoking of the CE marking affixed on it.